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They adore the wind and live in the desert: thojr cut no Umi<i utul drink no
wine, but endure a diet of raw meat and, being destitute of noses, breathe only
through two small holes.—-RABBI BENJAMIN OF TUI>KJ,A.
Sultan Sanjar at the Height of Us Fame.—Sultan Sanjar
is famous in history not only for his power and success,
which gained him the reputation of being invincible, but
also for his sudden and tragic fall, which involved thut of
his dynasty. According to native chroniclers, during the
forty years of his rule as King of Khorasan, Sanjar made
nineteen conquests. After he had attained the position
of Great Seljuk by the defeat of his nephew, his successes
continued, and in A.H. 524 (1130) he invaded Mnvaranahr,1
or Transoxiana, in order to reduce Ahmad Khan, who
had ceased to pay tribute. He besieged Samarcand and
took Ahmad Khan prisoner, but subsequently restored
him to power. Six years later Bahram Shah, of the
Ghaznavid dynasty, rebelled, but soon tendered his
submission ; in A.H. 535 (i 140) Samarcand again revolted
and for six months endured a siege by Sanjar, who when
he captured it displayed unusual clemency towards its
inhabitants. To the north his campaigns against the
rising power of Khwarazm, or Khiva, during the earlier
years of his reign kept that state in check,
Mohamed Ibrahim mentions in his history that
Sanjar, who had designs on the Kerman province,
1 Literally « Beyond the River."